Gender-Based Development Indices
Summary Advice: The Human Development Report 1995 introduced two new measures of human development that highlight the status of women: Gene-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). This page describes these gender-based development indices.
Main Points: The GDI measures achievement in the same basic capabilities as the HDI (Human Development Index) does, but takes note of inequality in achievement between women and men. The methodology used imposes a penalty for inequality, such that the GDI falls when the achievement levels of both women and men in a country go down or when the disparity between their achievements increases. The greater the gender disparity in basic capabilities, the lower a country's GDI compared with its HDI. The GDI is simply the HDI discounted, or adjusted downwards, for gender inequality.
The GEM is a measure of agency. It evaluates progress in advancing women's standing in political and economic forums. It examines the extent to which women and men are able to actively participate in economic and political life and take part in decision-making. While the GDI focuses on expansion of capabilities, the GEM is concerned with the use of those capabilities to take advantage of the opportunities of life.
In HDR 2009 the GDI and GEM methodologies are applied at the global level to rank 155 countries according to the GDI and 109 according to the GEM. The same methodologies can also be applied at the national and sub-national levels through disaggregated GDIs and GEMs so as to compare differences between regions, ethnic groups, age groups, etc.
Access to database: http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/indices/gdi_gem/
Source: Measuring inequality: Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), Human development Reports, UNDP, 2013
Page Created By: Madina Junussova. The content presented on this page is drawn directly from the source(s) cited above, and consists of direct quotations or close paraphrases. This material does not necessarily reflect the official view of the publishing organization.