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Cingranelli-Richards Human Rights Dataset

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Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset

Summary: The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset contains standards-based quantitative information on government respect for internationally recognized human rights.

Main Points: The CIRI dataset is produced by Professor David Cingranelli (University of Binghamton, USA) and Professor David Richards (University of Memphis USA). It is designed for use by scholars and students who seek to test theories about the causes and consequences of human rights violations, as well as policy makers and analysts who seek to estimate the human rights effects of a wide variety of institutional changes and public policies including democratization, economic aid, military aid, structural adjustment, and humanitarian intervention.

The CIRI ranks countries according to the extent to which they respect specific, internationally recognized human rights. The index provides scores in the following categories.

1. Physical Integrity Rights Index

This is an additive index constructed from the Torture, Extrajudicial Killing, Political Imprisonment, and Disappearance indicators. It ranges from 0 (no government respect for these four rights) to 8 (full government respect for these four rights).

2. Disappearance

Disappearances are cases in which people have disappeared, political motivation appears likely, and the victims have not been found. Knowledge of the whereabouts of the disappeared is, by definition, not public knowledge. However, while there is typically no way of knowing where victims are, it is typically known by whom they were taken and under what circumstances.

3. Extrajudicial Killing

Extrajudicial killings are killings by government officials without due process of law. They include murders by private groups if instigated by government. These killings may result from the deliberate, illegal, and excessive use of lethal force by the police, security forces, or other agents of the state whether against criminal suspects, detainees, prisoners, or others.

4. Political Imprisonment

Political imprisonment refers to the incarceration of people by government officials because of: their speech; their non-violent opposition to government policies or leaders; their religious beliefs; their non-violent religious practices including proselytizing; or their membership in a group, including an ethnic or racial group.

5. Torture

Torture refers to the purposeful inflicting of extreme pain, whether mental or physical, by government officials or by private individuals at the instigation of government officials. Torture includes the use of physical and other force by police and prison guards that is cruel, inhuman, or degrading. This also includes deaths in custody due to negligence by government officials.

6. Empowerment Rights Index

This is an additive index constructed from the Freedom of Movement, Freedom of Speech, Workers’ Rights, Political Participation, and Freedom of Religion indicators.

7. Empowerment Rights Index

This is an additive index constructed from the Foreign Movement, Domestic Movement, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Assembly & Association, Workers’ Rights, Electoral Self-Determination, and Freedom of Religion indicators.

8. Freedom of Assembly and Association

It is an internationally recognized right of citizens to assemble freely and to associate with other persons in political parties, trade unions, cultural organizations, or other special-interest groups. This variable indicates the extent to which the freedoms of assembly and association are subject to actual governmental limitations or restrictions (as opposed to strictly legal protections).

9. Freedom of Foreign Movement

This variable indicates citizens’ freedom to leave and return to their country.

10. Freedom of Domestic Movement

This variable indicates citizens’ freedom to travel within their own country.

11. Freedom of Movement

This variable indicates citizens’ freedom to travel within their own country and to leave and return to that country. Starting with the 2007 coding, this variable was retired and became two separate variables: Freedom of Domestic Movement and Freedom of International Movement.

12. Freedom of Speech

This variable indicates the extent to which freedoms of speech and press are affected by government censorship, including ownership of media outlets. Censorship is any form of restriction that is placed on freedom of the press, speech or expression. Expression may be in the form of art or music.

13. Electoral Self-Determination

This variable indicates to what extent citizens enjoy freedom of political choice and the legal right and ability in practice to change the laws and officials that govern them through free and fair elections. This right is sometimes known as the right to self- determination. A score of 0 indicates that the right to self-determination through free and fair elections did not exist in law or practice during the year in question.

14. Freedom of Religion

This variable indicates the extent to which the freedom of citizens to exercise and practice their religious beliefs is subject to actual government restrictions. Citizens should be able to freely practice their religion and proselytize (attempt to convert) other citizens to their religion as long as such attempts are done in a non-coercive, peaceful manner.

15. Freedom of Religion

This variable indicates the extent to which the freedom of citizens to exercise and practice their religious beliefs is subject to actual government restrictions. Citizens should be able to freely practice their religion and proselytize (attempt to convert) other citizens to their religion as long as such attempts are done in a non-coercive, peaceful manner. Starting with the 2007 coding, this variable was retired.

16. Worker’s Rights

Workers should have freedom of association at their workplaces and the right to bargain collectively with their employers. This variable indicates the extent to which workers enjoy these and other internationally recognized rights at work, including a prohibition on the use of any form of forced or compulsory labor; a minimum age for the employment of children; and acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health.

17. Women’s Economic Rights

Women's economic rights include a number of internationally recognized rights, including:

·        Equal pay for equal work

·        Free choice of profession or employment without the need to obtain a husband or male relative's consent

·        The right to gainful employment without the need to obtain a husband or male relative's consent

·        Equality in hiring and promotion practices

·        Job security (maternity leave, unemployment benefits, no arbitrary firing or layoffs, etc...)

·        Non-discrimination by employers

·        The right to be free from sexual harassment in the workplace

·        The right to work at night

·        The right to work in occupations classified as dangerous

·        The right to work in the military and the police force

19. Women’s Political Rights

Women’s political rights include a number of internationally recognized rights, including:

·        The right to vote

·        The right to run for political office

·        The right to hold elected and appointed government positions

·        The right to join political parties

·        The right to petition government officials

20. Women’s Social Rights

Women's social rights include a number of internationally recognized rights, including:

·        The right to equal inheritance

·        The right to enter into marriage on a basis of equality with men

·        The right to travel abroad

·        The right to obtain a passport

·        The right to confer citizenship to children or a husband

·        The right to initiate a divorce

·        The right to own, acquire, manage, and retain property brought into marriage

·        The right to participate in social, cultural, and community activities

·        The right to an education

·        The freedom to choose a residence/domicile

·        Freedom from female genital mutilation of children and of adults without their consent

 

21. Independence of the Judiciary

This variable indicates the extent to which the judiciary is independent of control from other sources, such as another branch of the government or the military.

The CIRI dataset covers 195 countries

Access to database:

http://www.humanrightsdata.org/

Source: Short Variable Descriptions for Indicators in the
Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset, David L. Cingranelli and David L. Richards. Internet Portal of CIRI Human Rights Data Project http://www.humanrightsdata.org/

Page Created By:  Madina Junussova. The content presented on this page is drawn directly from the source(s) cited above, and consists of direct quotations or close paraphrases. This material does not necessarily reflect the official view of the publishing organization.


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© University of Toronto 2008
School of Public Policy and Governance