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Patterns in Specialization

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ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY
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PUBLIC AFFAIRS (MPP/MPA) PROGRAMS
Albany Rockefeller
American SPA
ANU Crawford
ANZSOG
Arizona State SPA
Beijing Normal
Berkeley Goldman
Bocconi Milan
Brunei IPS
Calgary SPP
Cambridge POLIS
Canberra SGP
Carleton SPPA
Carnegie Heinz
Chicago Harris
Colorado SPA
Columbia SIPA
Concordia DPS
Cornell CIPA
Dalhousie SPA
Duke Sanford
Edinburgh AoG
ÉNAP Québec
Exeter Politics
FGV Brazil
Florida Askew
GW Trachtenberg
Georgetown
Georgia SPIA
Glasgow SSPS
Griffith GBS
GRIPS Tokyo
Harvard Kennedy
Hertie Berlin
Hong Kong DPPA
Illinois Chicago
Indiana SPEA
Jindal Delhi
Kansas SPAA
King's SSPP
Laval
LSE Inst Pub Aff
LSE Government
Macquarie PIR
Man-Winnipeg
Maryland SPP
MBRSG Dubai
McMaster-Guelph
Melbourne MSG
Michigan Ford
Michigan State PS
Minnesota
Moncton DAP
NC State SPIA
New Mexico SPA
New South Wales
NYU Wagner
North Carolina
Northwestern SPS
Ohio Glenn
Oregon PPPM
Ottawa GSPIA
Ottawa SPS
Oxford BSG
Pennsylvania Fels
Pittsburgh GSPIA
Princeton Wilson
Queen Mary SPIR
Queen's SPS
RANEPA Moscow
Rutgers SPAA
Ryerson DPPA
Sac State PPA
Sask-Regina JSGS
SciencesPo Paris
SF State DPA
Simon Fraser SPP
Singapore LKY
Stanford GPPP
Sydney GIR
Sydney GSG
Syracuse Maxwell
Tenn State CPSUA
Texas Johnson
Tokyo GraSPP
Toronto SPPG
UBC MPPGA
UCLA Luskin
UC London SPP
USC Price
Victoria SPA
Wisconsin
Vic Wellington
Virginia Batten
Warwick PAIS
Waterloo MPS
Washington Evans
Western LGP
York Glendon
York SPPA
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PROGRAMS
Carleton Paterson
Columbia SIPA
Toronto Munk
NYU Wagner MPA with Int Spec'n
Rutgers (Bloustein)

 

Patterns in Specialization
Observations from a global sample of over 100 public affairs programs

This page will [WHEN COMPLETED] provide our analysis of patterns of specialization in the global sample of over 100 public affairs programs in the database of the Atlas of Public Policy and Management. In this sample there are virtually no “purely generalist” programs because almost all have a mission that provides an element of specialization, and there are virtually no “purely specialist” programs because almost all share a substantial common core of generalist subjects. That said, there are interesting differences in the extent to which programs choose to specialize and how they do it. As illustrated below, programs differ on: 1) whether to include specialization streams; 2) what the specializations are; 3) whether selection of a selection is mandatory or optional; 4) how many courses are required to complete a specialization; and 5) how to certify the specialization.

Summary statistics (based on the programs included to date) are set out in Table 1.

Table 1: Summary Statistics
DATA TO BE UPDATED AS PROGRAMS ARE ANALYZED

Total Sample

 

Distribution of Specializations: Subject Domains

 

Number of Programs Currently in Sample

54

Analysis and Skills

23%

Percentage of Programs with Specializations

48%

  - Policy and Management Analysis

19%

 

 

  - Economic, Quantitative and Analytic Methods

2%

Among Programs with Specializations

 

  - Leadership and Communication Skills

2%

Mean Number of Specializations per Program

6.7

Institutions and Context

8%

Mean Number of Courses Required in a Specialization

3.9

  - Institutions, Process, Ethics, and Rights

2%

Percentage where Specialization is Mandatory

73%

  - Global Context

5%

 

 

  - Socioeconomic and Political Context

1%

Distribution of Specializations: Policy/Management

 

Management Functions

24%

Policy-Oriented Subjects

63%

  - Nonprofit Management and Advocacy

7%

Management-Oriented Subjects

37%

  - Local Government Management

5%

Total

100%

  - Public Financial Management

8%

 

 

  - Other Management Functions

4%

Distribution of Specializations: Pub Affairs/Int Affairs

 

Policy Sectors

45%

Archetypal Public Affairs Subjects (P&MA, EA, QM, DI&PP)

22%

  - International Development

8%

Archetypal International Affairs Subjects (I&GC, ID, DS&FR)

18%

  - Defence, Security and Foreign Relations

5%

Total (not 100%)

40%

  - Macroeconomic Policy

3%

 

 

  - Public Finance and Social Policy

6%

 

 

  - Health

5%

 

 

  - Environment

4%

 

 

  - Other Policy Sectors

13%

 

 

Total

100%

 

Programs without specialization streams (concentrations)

Almost half the programs in our sample take a “generalist” approach to the MPP or MPA degree and no not offer specializations (concentrations). Table 2 lists the programs in the Atlas database that do not offer specialization streams. Of the 108 programs in this sample XX do not declare a specialization.

Table 2: Programs in the Atlas database that do not offer specialization streams (concentrations)
DATA TO BE ADDED

It also should be noted that some programs, despite not offering specialization streams, describe their mission in terms of specializations. An example is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Example of mission specializations in MPP or MPA programs without specialization streams

Institution with
Atlas link

Degree
Name

Specializations Referenced on Program Website

Specialization
Required

Program Website Reference

Calgary SPP

MPP

Economic and Social Policy
International Policy
Energy and Environmental Policy

No

http://policyschool.ucalgary.ca/?q=students/master-public-policy-mpp

 

Specialization streams and specialized degrees

For those programs offering specialization streams, some recognize the successful completion of specialization requirements with a notation attached to the degree and others provide a degree with a specialized name. Examples are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Examples of different ways in which program specializations can be certified

Institution with
Atlas link

Degree
Name

Specialization Streams

Certification of Specialization

Texas LBJ

MPAff

International Affairs
Natural Resources and the Environment
Nonprofit and Philanthropic Studies
Public Management and Leadership
Social and Economic Policy
Technology, Innovation, and Information Policy
Urban and State Affairs

With certificate attached to degree

ANU Crawford

MPP (Policy Analysis)
MPP (Development Policy)
MPP (Economic Policy)
MPP (Social Policy)
MPP (Industry Strategy)
MPP (International Policy)

Policy Analysis
Development Policy
Economic Policy
Social Policy
Industry Strategy
International Policy

In name
of degree

 

Specializations offered

The NASPAA information page on MPA and MPP degrees (http://www.naspaa.org/students/faq/MPAMPP_Degrees_1.asp) provides the following examples of specializations:

Specializations offered by NASPAA [MPA] programs include areas such as public management, nonprofit management, health care management,
international development, urban affairs, human-resource management, state/local government administration, and financial management.

Specializations offered by NASPAA [MPP] programs include analysis in a myriad of public policy areas, including: environmental, education, health,
social, economic development, international, and urban policy.

These specializations and many more are observed within the programs included in the Atlas database. It can be seen in Table 5, which lists specializations by subject, that most of the specializations in management-oriented subjects are provided by MPA programs. Although most of the specializations in policy-oriented subjects are offered by MPP and specialization-named programs, MPA programs are also well represented.

Table 5: Specializations offered by Public Affairs programs in the Atlas database, organized by Subject
DATA TO BE ADDED

Subject

Specialization Name

Program and Degree

Policy- and Management-Oriented Subject

 

 

Policy and Management Analysis

Policy Analytic Methods
Organizational Behavior and Theory
Applied Politics
Applied Politics
Policy Analysis
Public Management
Policy and Management
Public Management
Public Management
Advanced Policy Analysis
Comparative Public Policy
Policy Analysis
International Public and Nonprofit Management
Policy Analysis
Public Management
Government, Politics and Policy Studies
Public and Nonprofit Management
Public Management/Organization Theory
Public Policy
Federal Policy, Politics and Management
Public-Private Policy and Management
Public Policy
Business and Government Policy
Business and Government Policy
Policy Analysis
Public Management
Public Management
Policy Analysis
Public Management
Public Management
Public Policy and Management
Comparative Public Policy and Administration
Public Management

Albany Rockefeller MPA
Albany Rockefeller MPA
American SPA MPA
American SPA MPP
American SPA MPA
American SPA MPA
American SPA MPA
American SPA MPA
American SPA MPP
American SPA MPP
American SPA MPP
ANU Crawford MPP
Bocconi Milan MPA
Carleton SPPA MAPA
Carleton SPPA MAPA
Cornell CIPA MPA
Cornell CIPA MPA
Georgia SPIA MPA
Georgia SPIA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
GRIPS Tokyo MAPP
Harvard Kennedy MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPA
Hertie Berlin MPP
Hertie Berlin MPP
Illinois Chicago MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA
Laval MPP
LSE IPA MPP
LSE Government MScPPA
LSE Government MScPPA

Management-Oriented Subjects

 

 

Nonprofit Management and Advocacy

Nonprofit Management
Nonprofit Policy, Management, and Leadership
Nonprofit Management
Business and Government Relationships
Nonprofit Organizations
Nonprofit Management
Nonprofit Administration
Nonprofit Management
Nonprofit Management
Nonprofit Management
Nonprofit Management and Leadership
Nonprofit Management and Leadership

Albany Rockefeller MPA
American SPA MPP
American SPA MPA
Bocconi Milan MPA
Colorado SPA MPA
Florida Askew MPA
Georgia SPIA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
Illinois Chicago MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Local Government Management

Local Government Management
State and Local Administration
City Management and Competitiveness
Local Government
Local Government Administration
Local Government Administration
Managing State and Local Governments
Local Government Administration
Local Government Management

Albany Rockefeller MPA
American SPA MPA
Bocconi Milan MPA
Colorado SPA MPA
Florida Askew MPA
Georgia SPIA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
Illinois Chicago MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA

Public Financial Management

Financial Management and Public Economics
Public Financial Management
Public Financial Management
Public Financial Management
Public Budgeting and Finance Administration
Budget and Public Finance
Budget and Public Finance
Financial Management
Public Financial Administration
Public Finances
Public Sector Financial Management
Public Sector Financial Management
Federal Acquisition
Federal Acquisition

Albany Rockefeller MPA
American SPA MPA
American SPA MPP
Florida Askew MPA
Georgia SPIA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
Illinois Chicago MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA
Laval MPP
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Human Resource Management

Human Resources Management

Albany Rockefeller MPA

Information and Technology Management

Information Strategy and Management
Information and Performance Management
Information Systems

Albany Rockefeller MPA
Illinois Chicago MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA

Leadership Skills

Leadership and Strategic Management
Management and Leadership
Management and Leadership

Florida Askew MPA
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Democratic Institutions and Policy Process

Democracy, Politics and Institutions
Democracy, Politics and Institutions

Harvard Kennedy MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPA

Ethics, Rights and Accountability

Human Rights and Humanitarian Policy
Human Rights and Social Justice

Columbia SIPA MPA
Cornell CIPA MPA

Communication Skills

 

 

Regulatory Policy and Management

Regulatory Policy

GW Trachtenberg MPP

Policy-Oriented Subjects

 

 

Global Context

Global Affairs
International Management
International Policy
International Policy (no stream)
Global Policy
International and Nongovernmental Organizations
International Relations
International and Global Affairs
International and Global Affairs
European Public and Economic Policy

Albany Rockefeller MPA
American SPA MPP
ANU Crawford MPP
Calgary SPP, MPP
Duke Sanford MPP
Florida Askew MPA
GRIPS Tokyo MAPP
Harvard Kennedy MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPA
LSE IPA MPP

Defence, Security and Foreign Relations

Homeland Security
Emergency Management and Homeland Security
International Security Policy
National Security
Emergency Management and Homeland Security
Homeland Security and Emergency Management
National Security and Foreign Policy
International Security and Economic Policy
international Security and Economic Policy

Albany Rockefeller MPA
Colorado SPA MPA
Columbia SIPA MPA
Duke Sanford MPP
Florida Askew MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

International Development

International Development
Development Policy
International and Development
International Development Studies
Development Policy
International Development Management
International Development Policy
International Development Studies
Political and Economic Development
Political and Economic Development
International Development
International Development
International Development Policy
International Development Policy

American SPA MPP
ANU Crawford MPP
Carleton SPPA MAPA
Cornell CIPA MPA
Duke Sanford MPP
GW Trachtenberg MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
GRIPS Tokyo MAPP
Harvard Kennedy MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA
LSE IPA MPP
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Macroeconomic Policy

Economic Policy
International Finance and Economic Policy
Economic and Financial Policy
Economic Policy
Public and Economic Policy

ANU Crawford MPP
Columbia SIPA MPA
Cornell CIPA MPA
GRIPS Tokyo MAPP
LSE IPA MPP

Public Finance and Social Policy

Social Policy
Social Policy
Economic and Social Policy (no stream)
Social Policy
Social Policy
Populations Studies
Social Policy
Social and Urban Policy
Social and Urban Policy
Public and Social Policy
Social Policy
Social Policy

American SPA MPP
ANU Crawford MPP
Calgary SPP, MPP
Cornell CIPA MPA
Duke Sanford MPP
Duke Sanford MPP
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPA
LSE IPA MPP
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Cities, Urban and Regional Development

Urban and Social Policy
Urban Policy
Economic Development

Columbia SIPA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Indiana SPEA MPA

Health

Health Policy
Healthcare Management
Health Policy
Health Policy
Health Policy and Administration
Health Policy
Health
Health Policy
Health Policy

Albany Rockefeller MPA
Albany Rockefeller MPA
American SPA MPP
Duke Sanford MPP
Georgia SPIA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Indiana SPEA MPA
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Environment

Environmental Policy, Management & Law
Environmental Policy
Environmental Policy
Environmental Policy & Natural Resource Mgt.
Sustainability and Sustainable Development
Environmental Policy
Environmental Policy

Colorado SPA MPA
Cornell CIPA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Indiana SPEA MPA
Indiana SPEA MPA
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Energy, Transport and Infrastructure

Energy and Environmental Policy (no stream)
Energy and Environment
Environment and Energy Policy
Energy
Energy Policy
Energy Policy

Calgary SPP, MPP
Columbia SIPA MPA
Duke Sanford MPP
Indiana SPEA MPA
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Science, Technology and Innovation

Science, Technology, and Environmental Policy
Innovation, Science and Environment
Science, Technology and Infrastructure Policy

American SPA MPP
Carleton SPPA MAPA
Cornell CIPA MPA

Policing and Justice Administration

Crime, Public Law, and Policy
Gender-Based Violence

American SPA MPP
Colorado SPA MPA

Arts and Culture

Arts Management
Cultural Heritage

American SPA MPA
Bocconi Milan MPA

Analytic Methods

Policy Informatics
Data Analytics

Arizona State SPA MPP
Carnegie Heinz MSPPM

Evaluation and Performance Measurement

Policy Analysis and Evaluation Methods
Policy Analysis and Evaluation
Program Analysis and Evaluation
Analysis and Evaluation

Florida Askew MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Laval MPP

Socioeconomic and Political Context

Economic and Political Development

Columbia SIPA MPA

Education

Higher Education Administration
Education Policy
Education Policy
Education Policy

Georgia SPIA MPA
GW Trachtenberg MPP
Maryland SPP MPM
Maryland SPP MPP

Economic Analysis

 

 

Quantitative Methods

Survey Methods

Illinois Chicago MPA

Employment, Labour and Immigration

 

 

Agriculture and Resources

 

 

Industry, Trade and Investment

Industry Strategy
International Trade and Finance
international Trade and Finance

ANU Crawford MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPP
Harvard Kennedy MPA

Financial Markets

Financial Market Regulation

Albany Rockefeller MPA

 

Page Created By: Ian Clark, last updated 13 April 2015


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© University of Toronto 2008
School of Public Policy and Governance