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MPP/MPA Core Competencies

 Using competency standards to determine core subjects, course-week requirements, and competency gaps


This page describes how two established standards for Master’s level competencies can be used to identify the subjects and course-weeks of instruction that might be considered to constitute a common curricular core for MPP, MPA and similarly titled programs. The standards are those promulgated by NASPAA (Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs and Administration) through its Commission on Peer Review and Accreditation (NASPAA, 2012, pp 69-71) and by UNDESA/IASIA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration through its Task Force on Standards of Excellence for Public Administration Education and Training (UNDESA/IASIA, 2008, pp 9-10). We use the most fine-grained descriptions of competencies in these standards: the examples under the competency domains in the NASPAA standard and the subcomponents under the curriculum components in the UNDESA/IASIA standard. These are listed in full detail at NASPAA Standards 2009: Examples of Competency Statements and at UNDESA/IASIA Standards, and reproduced in truncated form in Tables 4 and 5 below.

Identifying Core Subjects and Estimating Required Course-Weeks of Instruction

In Tables 4 and 5 we estimate the number of course-weeks of instruction required by a typical student to achieve MPP/MPA-level mastery of each competency. We constrain our estimates with the parameters implicit in the following three propositions, which reflect curricular choices made by well-established MPP and MPA programs:

  • It should be possible to satisfy the standards with 120 course-weeks (10 one-semester course equivalents) of instruction. We have selected this number because most public affairs programs require between 12 and 18 courses to graduate and some space within the curriculum is needed for specific program missions and to allow for electives.
  • It should be possible to satisfy both the NASPAA and the UNDESA/IASIA standards with the same set of courses.
  • The economics and quantitative analysis competencies for both standards (reflected, for example, in NASPAA’s “Analytical tools for collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data,” and in UNDESA/IASIA’s “Policy and program formulation, analysis, implementation and evaluation” as well as “management of economic development” and “institutional and developmental economics”) can be met with a combination of one full-semester course (12 course-weeks of instruction) in each of Economic Analysis and Quantitative Methods plus 6 course-weeks of instruction in Macroeconomic Policy.

The estimates that we have made in Tables 4 and 5 are summarized in Tables 2 and 3. They suggest that the required competencies could be taught by offering courses in 16 subjects, although not all subjects require a full semester of instruction. All 16 subjects can be considered “core subjects” in that at least some instruction is needed in each to meet the competency standards, but only four subjects require one semester or more of instruction: Policy and Management Analysis, Democratic Institutions and Policy Process, Economic Analysis, and Quantitative Methods. The competency requirements associated with 11 of the remaining core subjects could be fulfilled with quarter-semester or half-semester course modules, while the somewhat eclectic set of competency requirements assigned to Leadership Skills could be taught in a three-quarter-semester course of instruction. Consistent with the first proposition noted above, the total instruction across all 16 core subjects is 120 course-weeks, or 10 one-semester course equivalents.   

Implicit in our approach is the assumption that all the subject matter taught in a course assigned to a subject is pertinent to the competencies assigned to the subject. For example, it assumes that the required competency of project management is taught in at least one of the courses assigned to Analytic Methods. Although we identify finer-grained, topic-level, subject-matter requirements in Normed Core Topics, we cannot apply topic-level analysis to programs where we do not have access to syllabus-level information on course content. Our competency gap analysis described below therefore relies on the assignments of whole courses to subjects.  

As described on the Normed Core Topics page we are developing 120 “normed core topics” to specify the subject matter that could be taught in the 120 course-weeks of instruction to meet these competency requirements.

Proposed MPP/MPA Core Competencies

If all the NASPAA and the UNDESA/IASIA standards can be met with the curricular content from 16 subjects, it should be possible to group the required content under top-level competency headings that take account of subject boundaries such that each of the 16 core subjects is associated with only one top-level competency. We therefore propose the following MPP/MPA Core Competencies:

  1. Applying Economics and Statistics Concepts to Public Policy and Management Problems (30 course-weeks)
  2. Applying Analytic Methods and Evaluation Concepts to Public Policy and Management Problems (12 course-weeks)
  3. Understanding the Socioeconomic, Political and Global Contexts of Public Policy and Management (12 course-weeks)
  4. Applying Policy and Management Analysis Concepts to Public Policy and Management Problems (18 course-weeks)
  5. Understanding Democratic Institutions and Processes, and Acting Ethically (24 course-weeks)
  6. Managing Financial, Human and Information Resources in Public and Nonprofit Institutions (12 course-weeks)
  7. Leading and Communicating in Public Policy and Management (12 course-weeks)

The first three core competencies cover subjects and topics that what we describe on the Subjects page as policy-oriented; the last three cover those that are management-oriented, and the fourth covers the one subject that we describe as both policy- and management-oriented. The 120 topics are intended to constitute a core of 10 semester-course-equivalents of instruction common to all MPP and MPA programs. Programs with a policy-oriented curriculum (often leading to an MPP degree) typically supplement the common core with additional instruction (topics and courses) under the policy-oriented headings, as well as additional instruction in policy-oriented subjects that are outside the common core. Conversely, programs with a management-oriented curriculum (often leading to an MPA degree) typically offer additional instruction under the management-oriented headings, as well as in management-oriented subjects outside the common core.  

We do not claim that our list of MPP/MPA Core Competencies is more valid than the list of five Required Competency Domains in the NASPAA standards or the list of eight Curriculum Components used in the UNDESA/IASIA standards. The advantage of our depiction of top-level competencies is that it respects subject boundaries. As illustrated in Table 1, the required content (course-weeks of instruction) in each of the 16 core subjects is associated with one and only one core competency. Table 1 can be contrasted with Tables 2 and 3 where the required instruction in most subjects is distributed among several competency domains or curriculum components. Tables 1, 2 and 3 reflect the fact that, consistent with the second bullet proposition above, all three competency depictions result in the same subjects and course-weeks of required instruction.

Table 1: Estimated number of course-weeks of instruction (and thus normed core topics) needed to master each MPP/MPA core competency

Core Subjects

MPP/MPA Core Competency

Course-
Weeks

Course
Equivs.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Policy and Management Analysis

 

 

 

18

 

 

 

18

1.5

Economic Analysis

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

1

Quantitative Methods

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

1

Analytic Methods

6

 

 

 

 

6

0.5

Leadership Skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

9

0.75

Communication Skills

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

0.25

Democratic Institutions and Policy Process

 

 

 

 

18

 

 

18

1.5

Socioeconomic and Political Context

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

6

0.5

Ethics, Rights and Accountability

 

 

 

6

 

 

6

0.5

Global Context

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

3

0.25

Public Financial Management

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

6

0.50

Evaluation and Performance Measurement

 

6

 

 

 

 

6

0.50

Human Resource Management

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

3

0.25

Information and Technology Management

 

 

 

3

 

3

0.25

Macroeconomic Policy

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

0.50

Environment

 

 

3

 

 

3

0.25

Course-Weeks Needed for Core Competencies

30

12

12

18

24

12

12

120

10

Course Equivalents (at 12 weeks per course)

2.5

1.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

1.0

1.0

10

Number Key for MPP/MPA Core Competencies
1. Applying Economics and Statistics Concepts                                5. Understanding Institutions and Processes, and Acting Ethically
2. Applying Analytic Methods and Evaluation Concepts                 6. Managing Financial, Human and Information Resources
3. Understanding Socioeconomic, Political and Global Contexts   7. Leading and Communicating
4. Applying Policy and Management Analysis Concepts     

The alignment of subjects with core competencies permits us to apply our subject descriptions almost directly to the specification of competencies and learning outcomes. Our descriptions of learning outcomes for the core competencies, subjects and topics can be found at MPP/MPA Core Learning Outcomes. Table 6 below is reproduced from that page.

Competency Gap Analysis

The identification of the 16 core subjects with numerical course-week requirements allows us to perform a competency gap analysis on each program. We can calculate the subject-matter shortfall in each core subject experienced by a typical student in a program, taking account through the PEACO Algorithm of which courses are required and which are elective. For example, if a typical student experiences 9 weeks of instruction in courses that we have assigned to Economic Analysis, the subject-matter shortfall in that subject would be 12 – 9 = 3 course-weeks; if a program offers no courses that can plausibly be assigned to Public Financial Management, the program’s subject-matter shortfall in that subject would be 6 – 0 = 6 course-weeks. It is important to recognize that, depending on which courses a program designates as required and which it designates as elective, a subject-matter shortfall (competency gap) can occur even though the program offers courses that address all required competencies. For example, a program that has many electives, one of which addresses all the required competencies in human resource management, could still have a shortfall in Human Resource Management if the high number of available electives results in a low probability that a typical student will take the course. Indeed, our calculations using this methodology indicate that every single one of the 100+ programs have shortfalls in one or more of the 16 core subjects.

What should we make of the observation that even the most highly regarded MPP and MPA programs have subject-matter shortfalls relative to the competencies in the NASPAA and UNDESA/IASIA standards? Do the standards include unnecessary competencies? Are the standards overly ambitious? Should programs take the competency expectations more to heart in designing their curricula? We try to address these issues in our quest to specify 120 Normed Core Topics, including associated learning outcomes, which would meet the NASPAA and UNDESA/IASIA standards in 120 course-weeks of instruction. 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tables 2 to 6

Please scroll down to view the referenced tables.

 

                                                                   Table 2: Estimated number of course-weeks of study needed to master each NASPAA required competency domain
                                                                                                  (based on estimates at the competency example level in Table 4 below)
 

Core Subjects

NASPAA Competency Domain

Course-
Weeks

Course
Equivs.

1

2

3

4

5

Policy and Management Analysis

9

4

5

0

18

1.5

Economic Analysis

1

10

1

12

1

Quantitative Methods

12

12

1

Analytic Methods

2

4

6

0.5

Leadership Skills

1

1

1

6

9

0.75

Communication Skills

3

3

0.25

Democratic Institutions and Policy Process

2

7

2

7

18

1.5

Socioeconomic and Political Context

1

2

1

2

6

0.5

Ethics, Rights and Accountability

2

1

3

6

0.5

Intergovernmental and Global Context

 

3

 

 

 

3

0.25

Public Financial Management

1

4

1

6

0.50

Evaluation and Performance Measurement

1

3

3

6

0.50

Human Resource Management

2

1

1

3

0.25

Information and Technology Management

3

3

0.25

Macroeconomic Policy

 

 

5

1

 

6

0.50

Environment

3

3

0.25

Course-Weeks Needed for Core Competencies

21

27

46

15

11

120

10

Course Equivalents (at 12 weeks per course)

1.8

2.3

3.8

1.3

0.9

10

Number Key for NASPAA Competency Domains

  1. Leading and managing in public governance                                                    4. Incorporating public values into decisions

  2. Participating in and contributing to the policy process                                  5. Communicating and interacting productively

  3. Analyzing, synthesizing, thinking critically, solving problems, and making decisions

 

 

                                                                         Table 3: Estimated number of course-weeks of study needed to master each UNDESA/IASIA curriculum component
                                                                                                     (based on the estimates at the subcomponent level in Table 5 below)

Core Subjects

UNDESA/IASIA Curriculum Component

Course-
Weeks

Course
Equivs.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Policy and Management Analysis

1

3

3

4

 

 

4

3

18

1.5

Economic Analysis

 

 

1

10

 

 

1

 

12

1

Quantitative Methods

 

 

 

10

 

 

2

 

12

1

Analytic Methods

1

4

 

 

1

 

6

0.5

Leadership Skills

1

 

3

1

1

3

 

9

0.75

Communication Skills

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

0.25

Democratic Institutions and Policy Process

5

2

2

 

3

2

2

2

18

1.5

Socioeconomic and Political Context

 

 

1

 

4

 

1

 

6

0.5

Ethics, Rights and Accountability

 

 

1

 

 

5

 

 

6

0.5

Intergovernmental and Global Context

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

3

0.25

Public Financial Management

5

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

0.50

Evaluation and Performance Measurement

1

 

5

 

 

 

 

6

0.50

Human Resource Management

1

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

0.25

Information and Technology Management

2

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

0.25

Macroeconomic Policy

 

 

1

3

2

 

 

 

6

0.50

Environment

 

 

3

 

 

3

0.25

Course-Weeks Needed for Core Competencies

17

11

12

36

10

12

15

7

120

10

Course Equivalents (at 12 weeks per course)

1.4

0.9

1.0

3.0

0.8

1.0

1.3

0.6

10

Number Key for UNDESA/IASIA Curriculum Components
1. Management of Public Service Organizations                      5. Understanding Public Policy and the Organizational Environment
2.
Improvement of Public Sector Processes                              6. Public Sector Ethos
3. Leadership Skills in the Public Sector                                     7. Public Sector Skills
4. Application of Quant and Qual Techniques of Analysis      8. Public Sector Nature   

 

                                                   Table 4: Estimated number of course-weeks of study needed to master each competency example in the NASPAA competency domains

Domain with Examples

Core Subjects

Course-
Weeks

PM

EA

QM

AM

LS

CS

DI

SE

ER

GC

PF

EP

HR

IT

MP

En

1. Leading and managing in public governance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1 Apply public management models and organization theory

3

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

5

1.2 Appraise organizational environment

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1.3 Lead, manage, and serve a diverse workplace and citizenry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1.4 Lead and manage people

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

3

1.5 Manage projects

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1.6 Manage information and networks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

3

1.7 Manage contracts and public-private partnerships

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1.8 Resolve conflict and negotiate

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

2

1.9 Understand relationship between policy and implementation

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Domain Total

9

0

0

2

1

0

2

1

0

0

1

0

2

3

0

0

21

2. Participating in and contributing to the policy process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1 Apply techniques for program evaluation and forecasting

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

4

2.2 Describe and work within inst'l, struct'l, and political contexts of policy making

1

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

2.3 Describe and execute the policymaking process

1

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2.4 Incorporate int groups, exec-leg relationships … media in policy process

2

 

 

 

1

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

2.5 Prepare a budget

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

4

2.6 Recognize the social construction of problems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Domain Total

4

1

0

0

1

0

7

2

2

3

4

3

0

0

0

0

27

3. Analyzing, synthesizing, thinking critically, solving problems, making decisions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.1 Measuring and improving human performance

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

3

3.2 Analytical tools for collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data

2

10

12

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

5

 

32

3.3 Alternative sources of funding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

3.4 Plan strategy

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3.5 Understand and apply the legal context

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3.6 Understand and apply theories of decision-making and models

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Domain Total

5

10

12

4

1

0

2

0

1

0

1

3

1

0

5

0

45

4. Incorporating public values into decisions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1 Apply concepts of social equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

4.2 Behave ethically

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

4.3 Behave in a fair and ethical manner toward others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

4.4 Distinguish short- from long-term fiscal consequences of decisions

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

2

4.5 Exercise ethical responsibility in research and making decisions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

4.6 Identify environmental impacts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

4.7 Understand and apply criteria appropriate to public affairs, admin, and policy

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Domain Total

0

1

0

0

0

0

7

1

3

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

16

5. Communicating and interacting productively

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.1 Written communication

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.2 Oral communication

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

5.3 Demonstrate flexibility

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.4 Demonstrate self-knowledge

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.5 Sensitivity to diversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

5.6 Facilitation

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.7 Negotiation

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.8 Relate to stakeholders

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.9 Work in teams

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Domain Total

0

0

0

0

6

3

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

11

Five-Domain Totals

18

12

12

6

9

3

18

6

6

3

6

6

3

3

6

3

120

Letter Key for Core Subjects

PM: Policy and Management Analysis       LS: Leadership Skills                                                                   ER: Ethics, Rights and Accountability                           HR: Human Resource Management

EA: Economic Analysis                                  CS: Communication Skills                                                          GC: Global Context                                                           IT: Info and Tech Management

QM: Quantitative Methods                          DI: Democratic Institutions and Policy Process Public         PF: Public Financial Management                                 MP: Macroeconomic Policy

AM: Analytic Methods                                  SP: Socioeconomic and Political Context                               EP: Evaluation and Performance Measurement         En: Environment

 

                                                    Table 5: Estimated number of course-weeks of study needed to master each subcomponent in the UNDESA/IASIA curriculum components

Component with Subcomponents

Core Subjects

Course-
Weeks

PM

EA

QM

AM

LS

CS

DI

SE

ER

GC

PF

EP

HR

IT

MP

En

1. Management of Public Service Organizations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1 Human resource management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

1.2 Budgeting and financial processes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

5

1.3 Info mgt, new tech applications, and policy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

2

1.4 Administrative and constitutional law

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1.5 Effective communication

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1.6 Organization and mgt concepts and behavior

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1.7 Not for profit and priv sector relationships...

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Component Total

2

0

0

0

1

2

5

0

0

0

5

0

1

2

0

0

18

2. Improvement of Public Sector Processes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1 Development of high performing organizations

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

5

2.2 Management of networks and partnerships

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2.3 The delivery of public goods and services

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

2.4 Management of projects and contracts

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

3

2.5 Supporting workforce diversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

2.6 Motivation and design of public sector orgs

1

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Component Total

5

0

0

2

2

0

2

0

0

0

1

1

2

1

0

0

16

3. Leadership Skills in the Public Sector

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.1 Creative and innovative problem solving

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

3.2 Leading institutional and org transformation

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3.3 Conflict prevention and resolution strategies

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3.4 Promoting equity in service delivery

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3.5 Developing approaches to poverty alleviation

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

3

3.6 Promoting democratic institutional development

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3.7 Public sector ethics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Component Totals

4

2

1

1

2

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

15

4. Application of Quant and Qualitative Techniques of Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1 Institutional and developmental economics

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

2

 

4

4.2 Pol and prog formulation, analysis...evaluation

2

8

8

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

1

 

25

4.3 Decision-making and problem-solving

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4.4 Strategic planning

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Component Total

4

9

9

2

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

5

0

0

3

0

34

5. Understanding Pub Pol and the Organizational Environment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.1 Political and legal institutions and processes

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

5.2 Economic and social institutions and processes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

5.3 Historical and cultural context

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.4 The management of economic development

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

3

5.5 The implications of the “third party government”

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

5.6 Acknowledging and reconciling cultural diversity

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Component Total

0

1

0

0

1

0

6

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

14

6. Public Sector Ethos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.1 Democratic values