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With-versus-Without (in impact evaluation)

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PPGPortal > Home > Concept Dictionary > W, X, Y, Z > With-versus-Without (in impact evaluation)

With-versus-Without (in impact evaluation) 

This evaluates the success of a policy or program by comparing the actual outcomes which have taken place in society, to an estimate of the results as they would have occurred in the absence of the policy intervention in question.

(Ben Eisen, MPP Graduate 2009)


"With versus without" questions in evaluation attempt to measure program impact by comparing actual results in the real world to an estimate of the counterfactual results, which would have occurred if the intervention had not taken place.

“With” refers to the outputs and outcomes with the intervention (the factual), which are compared with the outputs and outcomes “without” the intervention (the counterfactual) to determine the impact of the intervention, though single or double difference estimates.


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© University of Toronto 2008
School of Public Policy and Governance