An agreement containing legally binding commitments for countries to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5% below 1990 levels.
(Solomon, Susan, Dahe Quin, Martin Manning, Melinda Marquis, Kristen Averyt, Melinda M.B. Tignor, Henry LeRoy Miller Jr., Zhenlin Chen, eds. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm.)
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC. It contains legally binding commitments, in addition to those included in the UNFCCC. Countries included in Annex B of the Protocol (most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and countries with economies in transition) agreed to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride) by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005.