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Impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle; depravity, decay, and/or an inducement to wrong by improper or unlawful means, a departure from the original or from what is pure or correct, and/or an agency or influence that corrupts.

Merriam Webster Dictionary; Pal (2009) Chap. 1 


Corruption is an outcome. It is a consequence of the failure of any of a number of accountability relationships that characterize a national governance system - from a failure of the citizen-politician relationship (which can lead to state capture), to a failure of bureaucratic and checks -and-balances institutions (which can lead to administrative corruption). Aggregate measures of corruption thus offer a useful overview of the degree to which the national governance system as a whole - rather than any part - is dysfunctional. (Levy, 2007, p. 5)

Transparency International (TI), a policy oriented global civil society organization that now has more than 90 national chapters around the world, has five global priorities in fighting corruption: corruption in politics, corruption in public contracting, corruption in the private sector, international anti-corruption conventions, and poverty and development. Known internationally for its Corruption Perceptions Index and Global Corruption Barometer, TI offers country rankings used by governments in devising anti-corruption strategies (Pal).

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School of Public Policy and Governance