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PPGPortal > Home > Concept Dictionary > B, C > Civil Society

Civil Society 


Those social organizations, associations and institutions that exist beyond the sphere of direct supervision and control by the state.



(John Friedmann. 1998. "The New Political Economy of Planning: The Rise of Civil Society." In Douglass and Friedmann, eds. Cities for Citizens. Chichester, U.K.: John Willey, p.2)


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