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European Protest and Coercion Data

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European Protest and Coercion Data

Summary: European Protest and Coercion Data (EPCD) was developed by Ron Francisco at the University of Kansas. The website provides what Francisco refers to as “valid interval" daily data on protest and coercion in 28 European countries from 1980 through 1995.

Main Points: The EPCD project used Lexis-Nexis as its primary source medium and accessed its Reuters Textline library, which provided global, regional and local wire-services as well as on-line newspapers and magazines—a total of over 400 publications. The data are country-specific.

The EPCD codes all reported protest and repressive events such as strikes, occupations, hunger strikes, and vigils. The data are interval. Date, day, action type, location, target or government agent (police, court, ministry, etc.), number of protesters (all, arrested, injured, killed) are shown, the organizational strength of the protesters is estimated and there is a description of each event with the identification of the original source.

Geographical coverage

The original dataset covers 28 European countries, including data on a regional level in the cases of Northern Ireland, the Czech and Slovakia Republics, and East and West Germany. Note that similar daily interval data for Korea, Burma and four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador and Peru) are available from the same webpage.

Time coverage and updates

The dataset is completed and contains daily and sub-daily interval coded data from 1980 through 1995.


All variables are well documented in the project’s codebook, which is available online. The codebook covers topics such as context coding, coding conventions and country notes.

Data formats

Excel and ASCII text (tab-delimited)

Access to database:

Sources: Francisco, R. A. 2000. Codebook for European Protest and Coercion Data, 1980 through 1995. University of Kansas.

Nam, T. 2006. What You Use Matters: Coding Protest Data. PS: Political Science & Politics, 39:2:281-287. Cambridge University Press.

Page Created By:  Madina Junussova. The content presented on this page is drawn directly from the source(s) cited above, and consists of direct quotations or close paraphrases. This material does not necessarily reflect the official view of the publishing organization.

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© University of Toronto 2008
School of Public Policy and Governance