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PPM-101: Policy and Management Analysis

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Normed Course Outlines

PPM-101: Policy and Management Analysis

Description: This normed course outline covers the concepts and analytic techniques fundamental to managing and leading organizations, including material on organizational strategy, motivating people, performance measurement, managing teams, persuasion, and operations. It is the normative, action-oriented, companion to the course outline for Democratic Institutions and Policy Process. Policy and Management Analysis includes analytical frameworks and techniques that are useful for implementing public policy and managing organizational performance to achieve policy objectives.

Learning OutcomesOn successful completion of this course students will have the skills and knowledge to utilize the concepts enumerated below and be able to understand and describe:

  • The nature of evidence-based policymaking.
  • The rational decision making model, the implications of “bounded rationality,” and the various reasons why governments sometimes arrive at apparently irrational decisions.
  • The management challenges associated with the need to create binding rules for public servants while leaving them sufficient room to exercise judgment, discretion and common sense in the performance of their duties.  
  • The key policy evaluation techniques and will be able to make informed decisions about the appropriateness of various evaluation methods for measuring the success of specific public policies.
  • The idea of policy design and the fact that policymakers often have multiple “tools,” “instruments,” or “levers” to choose from when deciding how to achieve a policy objective, and the analytical processes through which policymakers can seek to identify the best option.
  • The major changes in the field of public administration that have occurred in recent decades, particularly how the responsibilities of the state have evolved and the strategies governments have adopted in response.
  • The nature of strategic management, and the importance of strategic thinking to effective performance in senior public service positions.
  • Contemporary theoretical debates about organizational behaviour and organizational culture, particularly the similarities and differences between the behaviour of public sector organizations and large private sector entities.
  • The most common sources of conflict in organizations and be able to identify and execute suitable strategies for managing different types of conflict when they arrive.  
  • The different sources of motivation that drive people to complete assigned tasks and will be able to develop and execute key management strategies that facilitate effective cooperation and teamwork.
  • The major different types of multi-level governance, and the advantages and challenges presented by multi-level governance arrangements.
  • The idea of "public governance" and the growing importance of policy networks and multi-party collaboration in the delivery of policy and public services, and how the increasing prominence of this idea has influenced the study and practice of public administration in recent decades.  

Concepts to be Learned:  Argument Mapping; Boundary Analysis; Brainstorming; Causal Chain; Decision Chain; Decision Point; Evidence-based Policy; Focusing Events; Ideas in Good Currency; Innovation Networks; Instrument Choice; Interactive Policy Analysis; Internal Consistency; Path Dependency; Policy; Policy Actor; Policy Analysis; Policy Capacity; Policy Community; Policy Consistency; Policy Development; Policy Diffusion; Policy Entrepreneurs; Policy Feedback; Policy Goals; Policy Instrument; Policy Window; Public Policy; Rational Choice Theory; Static Response; Wicked Problems; Quality Management; Rational Model; Rational Policy Analysis; Public Choice Model; Rational Choice Theory; Binding Rules; Discretion; Evaluability; Evaluation Assessment; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Products;  Instrument ChoiceInstrument Design; Policy Instrument; Satisficing; Static Response; Deterrence; Nonlinear Policy Problems; Program; User Charge; Public Administration; Citizen-Centred Service Delivery; Client Satisfaction; Government Restructuring; Policy Capacity; Decentralisation; Internal Consistency; Horizontal Policy Consistency; Incrementalism in Policy Reform; Plans; Policy Consistency; Strategic Governance; Incremental Costs (in public management); Unity of Command; Organizational Culture; Favouritism; Inclusive Management; Management Improvement; Managerialism; Brainstorming; Collaborative Management; Inclusive Management (in public management); Multi-Level Governance.

Course Syllabi Sources for this Normed Course Outline: University of Toronto: PPPG-1001; Carleton University: PADM-5116; Saskatchewan and Regina: JSGS-801; NYU Wagner: CORE-GP.1022; George Washington: PPA-6006; American: PUAD-612

We have used these three syllabi to generate 12 normed topics in higher education policy. The topics are normed in the sense that each is designed to have a volume of content capable of being taught in one course-week of instruction − nominally 3 hours of in-class work and 7 hours of outside-class reading.

Normed Topics in this Normed Course Outline

Like other normed topics on the Atlas, each of these has a topic description, links to core concepts relevant to the topic, learning outcomes, a reading list drawn from available course syllabi, and a series of assessment questions.

Recommended Readings:

Week 1: Policy Analysis and Contemporary Governance

Leslie A. Pal, Beyond Policy Analysis 4th ed. (Toronto: Nelson Education, 2010), Chapter 2

Michael Howlett, (2009). "Policy analytical capacity and evidence-based policy-making: Lessons from Canada." Canadian Public Administration no. 52 (2):153-175. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-7121.2009.00070_1.x.

Michael J. Prince, “Soft Craft, Hard Choices, Altered Context: Reflections on Twenty-Five Years of Policy Advice in Canada,” in Laurent Dobuzinskis, Michael Howlett, David Laycock, eds., Policy Analysis in Canada(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007), 163-185. 2013.

Atkinson, Michael. “Policy, Politics, and Political Science.” Presidential address at the annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Victoria, BC, 5 June 2013.

Mansbridge, Jane. 2013. “What is Political Science For?” Presidential address at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, 29 August.

Pierson, James and Naomi Schaefer Riley. 2013. “The Problem with Public Policy Schools.” The Washington Post (6 December).

Thaler, Richard. 2012. “Watching Behavior Before Writing the Rules.” The New York Times (7 July).

Deborah Stone, Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision-making, WWNorton, 3rd edition,2011. Chapter 8

Eugene Bardach, A Practical Guide to Policy Analysis, Chatham House, CQ Press, 4th edition, 2012.  Part II: Assembling Evidence; Part I Step 3; Appendix B

Congressional Budget Office, Social Security Policy Options, read only pages ix-7, 2010. 07-01-SSOptions_forWeb.pdf

Carl Patton and David Sawicki, Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning, 2nd Edition (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1993) Chapter 6, “Identifying Alternatives”

Thaler, Richard H. and Sunstein, Cass R. and Balz, John P., Choice Architecture (April 2, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1583509 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1583509

Berman, (ed), Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, 2e, “Policy Sciences Approach,” deLeon and Martell, pp 1495-1498, 2008.

Weimer and Vining, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 5th Ed, “What is Policy Analysis?” pp 23-26, 2010.

Week 2: Models of Policy Making

Atkinson, Michael. “Policy, Politics, and Political Science.” Presidential address at the annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Victoria, BC, 5 June 2013.

Mansbridge, Jane. 2013. “What is Political Science For?” Presidential address at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, 29 August.

Forester, John. 1984. “Bounded Rationality and the Politics of Muddling Through.” Public Administration Review 1: pp. 23-31.

Lambert, Craig. 2006. “The Marketplace of Perceptions: Behavioral Economics Explains Why We Procrastinate, Buy, Borrow, and Grab Chocolate on the Spur of the Moment.” Harvard Magazine (March-April).

Sunstein, Cass R. 1997. “Behavioral Analysis of Law.” University of Chicago Law Review 64: pp. 1175-1195.

Henrich, John, et al. 2001. “In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies.” The American Economic Review 91, 2: pp. 73-78.

Renwick Monroe, Kristen and Kristen Hill Maher. 1995. “Psychology and Rational Actor Theory.” Political Psychology 16, 1: pp. 1-21.

Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. 1981. “The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice.” Science 211, 4481: pp. 453-458.

Wilson, Rick. 2011. “The Contribution of Behavioral Economics to Political Science.” Annual Review of Political Science 14: pp. 201-223.

Kraft, Michael E., and Scott R. Furlong. Public policy: Politics, analysis, and alternatives. London: Sage Publications, 2012. Chapter 3. Pp. 74-110.

Jenkins-Smith, Hank C., and Paul A. Sabatier. "Evaluating the advocacy coalition framework." Journal of public policy 14 (1994): 175-175.

Lindblom, Charles E. "The science of muddling through." Public Administration Concepts and Cases (2000): 225-36.

Schneider, Anne, and Helen Ingram. "Social construction of target populations: Implications for politics and policy." American political science review 87, no. 02 (1993): 334-347.

Kingdon, John W. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Boston and Montreal: Longman, 2011. Chapters 4-10. Pp. 5-41.

Baumgartner, Frank R., and Bryan D. Jones. Agendas and instability in American politics. University of Chicago Press, 2010. Chapters 1-2. Pp.1-38.

Week 3: Rules vs. Discretion

Thaler, Richard. 2012. “Watching Behavior Before Writing the Rules.” The New York Times (7 July).

Morgan, Bronwen and Karen Yeung. 2007. An Introduction to Law and Regulation: Texts and Materials. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pal, Leslie. 2006. Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, 3rd ed. Toronto: Nelson Education, p. 181.

Week 4: Policy Evaluation

Leslie A. Pal, Beyond Policy Analysis 5th ed. (Toronto: Nelson Education, 2013), chap. 7.

Bovens, Mark, Paul T Hart, and Sanneke Kuipers, "The Politics of Policy Evaluation," in Michael Moran, Martin Rein and Robert E. Goodin, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 319-335.

McLaughlin, John A. and Gretchen B. Jordan, “Using Logic Models,” in Joseph S. Wholey, Harry P. Hatry, and Kathryn E. Newcomer, eds., Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation, 2nd ed., (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004), 7-32.

Auld, A. G., Mallett, A., Burlica, B., Nolan-Poupart, F., & Slater, R. (2014). Evaluating the effects of policy innovations: Lessons from a systematic review of policies promoting low-carbon technology. Global Environmental Change (in press), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.1003.1002.

DeLeon, Peter, and Linda DeLeon. "What ever happened to policy implementation? An alternative approach." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART (2002): 467-492.

McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin. "Learning from experience: Lessons from policy implementation." Educational evaluation and policy analysis 9, no. 2 (1987): 171-178. 

Bovens, Mark, Paul T Hart, and Sanneke Kuipers. "The politics of policy evaluation." in The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, edited by Moran, Michael, Martin Rein, and Robert E. Goodin Pp. 317-333. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 

Bardach, Eugene. Practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving. Sage Publications Inc, 2011. Part I, Step 4.

“Never the twain shall meet: Why do economists and environmental scientists have such a hard time communicating?,” The Economist, http://www.economist.com/node/965655  

Principles of Harm Reduction. Harm Reduction Coalition: http://harmreduction.org/about-us/principles-of-harm-reduction/

Burger, Nicholas, Liisa Ecola, and Thomas Light. Evaluating Options for US Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Using Multiple Criteria. Rand Corporation, 2009. Chapter 3.

Week 5: Policy Design and Instrument Choice

Leslie A. Pal, Beyond Policy Analysis 4th ed. (Toronto: Nelson Education, 2010), chap. 4.

Peter Aucoin, “The Policy Roles of Central Agencies: Bruce Doern’s Approach to the Policy Process,” in Policy G. Toner, L.A. Pal, and M.J. Prince (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010), 59-76

Susan McDaniel and Paul Bernard, “Life Course as a Policy Lens: Challenges and Opportunities” Canadian Public Policy, Supplement Vol. XXXVII, 2011 http://utpjournals.metapress.com/content/eh76x64v37234q64/

Katherine L. Milkman, Todd Rogers and Max H. Bazerman 2008 “Harnessing Our Inner Angels and Demons: What We have Learned About Want/Should Conflicts and How That knowledge Can Help Us Reduce Short-Sighted Decision Making” Perspectives on Psychological Science 3(4) 

Week 6: Recent Trends from Comparative Public Administration

Osbourne, S. (2006). “A New Public Governance?” Public Management Review 8(3): 377-387.

Phillips, S.D. (2006). The Intersection of Governance and Citizenship in Canada: Not Quite the Third Way. IRPP Policy Matters Vol. 7(4).

Blanco, I., Lowndes, V., Pratchett, L. (2011). Policy Networks and Governance Networks: Towards Greater Conceptual Clarity. Political Studies Review, 9: 297–308.

Patrick Le Galès. “Policy Instruments and Governance” in The Sage handbook of governance, Edited by Mark Bevir, pp. 142-160 London: SAGE, 2011.

Leslie A. Pal, Beyond Policy Analysis 5th ed. (Toronto: Nelson Education, 2013), Chapters 1,2, and 6.

Brooks, Stephen, “The Policy Analysis Profession in Canada,” in Laurent Dobuzinskis, Michael Howlett, David Laycock, eds., Policy Analysis in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007), 21-47.

HM Government. (2013). Policy Profession: Skills and Knowledge Framework. Available at: https://civilservicelearning.civilservice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Policy%20Profession%20Skills%20and%20Knowledge%20framework%20Jan2013web.pdf

Bakvis, Herman, and Mark D. Jarvis, eds. From New Public Management to New Political Governance: Essays in Honour of Peter C. Aucoin. Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 2012. Chapters 1 and 2.

Osborne Stephen, 2006. “The new public governance” Public Management Review, 8(3) 377 – 387.

Skogstad, Grace. 2003. “Who Governs? Who Should Govern? Political Authority and Legitimacy in Canada in the Twenty-First Century.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 36: 955-973.

Rhodes, R.A.W. 1996. “The New Governance: Governing Without Government.” Political Studies 44(4), 652- 667.

Peters, B. G., and J. Pierre. 1998. “Governance without Government? Rethinking Public Administration.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 8(2), 223-44.

Moran, Rein, and Goodin, (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, Chapter 2, “The Historical Roots of the Field,” deLeon, pp 39-57, 2006.

Albert, Washington Post, “Can Government Learn How to Fail Fast?” 4/12/13.

Schultze, The Politics and Economics of Public Spending, pp 74-76, 1968.

Herbert Simon, “The Proverbs of Administration,” (1946); also in Administrative Behavior (1947). See comments on administrative rationality and the psychology of administrative decisions.

Week 7: The Meaning of Strategy in Public Management

Considine, M. (2005). "Making Public Policy: Institutions, Actors, Strategies." Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, Chapter 1-3 (pages1-50)

Mark Moore (1997), "Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in the Public Sector," Harvard University Press, 1997, pp. 57-76

Michael Porter (1996), "What is Strategy?" Harvard Business Review, November-December 1996, at https://hbr.org/1996/11/what-is-strategy accessed 7 June 2015

Robert Kaplan and David Norton (2008), "Integrating Strategy Planning and Operational Execution: A Six-Stage System" Harvard Business Review, May-June 2008, at http://www.insightfromhbr.org/0608bsr/BSRMayJune08.pdf accessed 7 June 2015.

Henry Mintzberg (1987), "The Strategy Concept 1: Five Ps for Strategy, California Management Review," Fall 1987, Vol. 30 Issue 1, p. 11-24 at http://www3.uma.pt/filipejmsousa/ge/Mintzberg,%201987.pdf, accessed 7 June 2015.

Donald F. Kettl, "The Global Revolution in Public Management: Driving Themes, Missing Links," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 446-462, 1997

Herman B. Leonard, "A Short Note on Public Sector Strategy-Building" (November 2002), at http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fisites.harvard.edu%2Ffs%2Fdocs%2Ficb.topic849455.files%2FStrategic%2520Planning%2FLeonardNote%2520on%2520Strategy%25202006%252001%252016.doc&ei=nnx0VcSAO8fYsAWZhYHYDw&usg=AFQjCNHbi1foPMxk0HLm_nspLPhf_GLZmA&sig2=edNWSX_AzknM144PtXhvCw , accessed 7 June 2015.

Peter F. Drucker, “Managing the Public Service Institution,” The Public Interest 33 (Fall 1973) 43-60; at http://www.nationalaffairs.com/doclib/20080527_197303302managingthepublicserviceinstitutionpeterfdrucker.pdf accessed 7 June 2015.

Week 8: Organizational Behaviour

Herbert Simon, “The Proverbs of Administration,” (1946); also in Administrative Behavior (1947); see his comments on administrative rationality and the psychology of administrative decisions.

Holzer, Marc and Richard Schwester. (2011). Chapter Two: Organizational Theory and Management. Public Administration: An Introduction. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York.

Robert S. Pindyck and Daniel L. Rubinfeld. 2012. Microeconomics, Eighth Edition. Prentice-Hall. Chapter 12.

Cramton, C. D., & Hinds, P. J. (2005). Subgroup dynamics in internationally distributed teams: Ethnocentrism or cross-national learning? Research in Organizational Behavior, 26, 231-263.

Week 9: Managing Conflict

Edmondson, A. C. (2012). Teamwork On the Fly. Harvard Business Review, 90(4), 72-80.

Bowles, H. R. (2005). What could a leader learn from a mediator? Dispute resolution strategies for organizational leadership. In M. Moffitt & R. Bordone (Eds.), Handbook of Dispute Resolution (pp. 409-424). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

de Wit, F. R. C., Greer, L. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2012). The Paradox of Intragroup Conflict: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2), 360-390.

Cramton, C. D., & Hinds, P. J. (2005). Subgroup dynamics in internationally distributed teams: Ethnocentrism or cross-national learning? Research in Organizational Behavior, 26, 231-263.

Week 10: Working in Teams and Motivation

Mayo, Elton. The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization. Oxford: Graduate School of Business Administration, 1945. Pages 68-76.

McGregor, Douglas. "The human side of enterprise." New York 21 (1960): 166.

Maslow, Abraham Harold. "A theory of human motivation." Psychological review 50, no. 4 (1943): 370.

Barnard, Chester Irving. The functions of the executive. Vol. 11. Harvard university press, 1968.

Nicholson, Nigel. “How to Motivate Your Problem People.” Harvard Business Review January 2003. https://hbr.org/2003/01/how-to-motivate-your-problem-people  

Holzer, Marc, and Richard W. Schwester. Public Administration: An Introduction. Armonk: ME Sharpe, 2011. Chapters 2,3 and 7.

Week 11: Multi-Level Governance

Leo, Christopher. “Multi-Level Governance and Ideological Rigidity:  The Failure of Deep Federalism,” Canadian Journal of Political  Science, 42:1 (2009), 93 – 116

Herman Bakvis, Gerald Baier, and Douglas Brown. 2009. Contested Federalism: Certainty and Ambiguity in the Canadian Federation. Toronto: Oxford U.P.

Rocher, François and Miriam Smith. 2003. “The Four Dimensions of Canadian Federalism.” In New Trends in Canadian Federalism. 2nd ed. Eds. François Rocher and Miriam Smith. Peterborough: Broadview UP: 21-44.

Gibbons, Roger, Antonia Maioni and Janice Gross Stein. 2006. Canada by Picasso: The Faces of Federalism. Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada. Essays by Gibbons and Stein. http://www.conferenceboard.ca/documents.aspx?did=1785

Papillon, Martin. 2009. “The (Re)Emergence of Aboriginal Governments.” In Canadian Politics. 5th ed. Eds. James Bickerton and Alain-G Gagnon. Toronto: Oxford UP: 179-196.

Kettl, D. (2006). Managing boundaries in American administration: The collaboration imperative. Public Administration Review, 66, 10-19.

Lewis, Jeffrey. "The Council of the E.U. and the European Council." Chapter 11 in Michelle Cini et al. European Union Politics, Oxford U.P., 2013, fourth edition.

Wallace, Helen. "Exercising Power and Influence in the E.U.: The Role of Member States" in S. Boulmer and Christian Lequesne, The Member States of the European Union. Oxford University Press. 2005.

Week 12: The Shift to Public Governance

Savoie, Donald J., Court Government and the Collapse of Accountability: in Canada and the United Kingdom (Toronto: UofT Press, 2008). Chapter 7.

Leone, Roberto and Frank Ohemeng. Approaching Public Administration: Core Debates and Emerging Issues (Toronto: Edmond-Montgomery, 2011). chapter 13 (New Public Governance) 

Tony Bovaird, “Public Governance: Balancing Stakeholder Power in a Network Society,” International Review of Administrative Sciences, 71, 2 (2005), 217-228.

Stephen P. Osborne, “The New Public Governance?,” Public Management Review, 8 (September 2006), 3, 377-387.

Terry L. Cooper, Tomas A. Bryer, and Jack W. Meek, “Citizen-Centered Collaborative Public Management,” Public Administration Review, December 2006, Special Issue, 76-88.

Robert Agranoff, “Inside Collaborative Networks: Ten Lessons for Public Managers,” Public Administration Review, Special Edition (December 2006), 56-65.

Evan Diamond and Ron Cooper, “Citizen Relationship Management,” Optimum Online, 33 (December 2003), 4. Available at: http://www.optimumonline.ca/article.phtml?id=190”

Donald J. Savoie, The Federal Government: Revisiting Court Government in Canada,” in Luc Bernier, Keith Brownsey and Michael Howlett (eds.), Executive Styles in Canada: Cabinet Structures and Leadership Practices in Canadian Government. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005, 17-43.

John J. Kiefer and Robert S. Montjoy, “Incrementalism before the Storm: Network Performance for the Evacuation of New Orleans,” Public Administration Review, December 2006, Special Issue, 122-130.

Rachel Laforest and Susan Phillips, “Citizen Engagement: Rewiring the Policy Process,” in Michael Orsini and Miriam Smith (eds.), Critical Policy Studies. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006, 67-90.

Sample Assessment Questions:

1a) Provide a one-sentence definition of the following terms: Argument Mapping; Boundary Analysis; Brainstorming; Causal Chain; Decision Chain; Decision Point; Evidence-based Policy; Focusing Events; Ideas in Good Currency; Innovation Networks; Instrument Choice; Interactive Policy Analysis; Internal Consistency; Path Dependency; Policy; Policy Actor; Policy Analysis; Policy Capacity; Policy Community; Policy Consistency; Policy Development; Policy Diffusion; Policy Entrepreneurs; Policy Feedback; Policy Goals; Policy Instrument; Policy Window; Public Policy; Rational Choice Theory; Static Response; Wicked Problems. 1b) Why is evidence-based policymaking difficult to achieve and what are some of the constraints that policy actors face that may be obstacles to the selection of evidence-based policies supported by rigorous policy analysis? 1c) In one paragraph, describe and provide a contemporary example of a policy problem. 1d) Explain why it is sometimes hard to define “success” for policy actions using one example of a government initiative for which defining success may be difficult. 1d) Lindblom's article, The Science of 'Muddling Through, argues in effect that the rational analysis of policy is impossible for several reasons: we don't have a finite list of alternatives; for any given alternative we don't know exactly who it will affect and what those effects will be; and the people making the decision have different value systems and so will be unable to agree on how to rank the various alternatives. Despite these problems, we have been studying in this course how to do policy analysis. If you were a public administrator, how would you judge when you would use rational policy analysis and what use you would put it to? [This question is from Prof. Steve Chilton's course at University of Minnesota, found at http://www.d.umn.edu/~schilton/3221/3221.Exam3.2003.Spring.html, accessed 5 February 2015].

2a) What is meant by the term “bounded rationality and why is this an important concept in public policy and management? 2b) Describe two common types of cognitive bias and describe, with an example (real or hypothetical) of how they can contribute to irrational policy choices. 2c) Explain, with an example (real or hypothetical), at least one way in which political considerations can contribute to irrational (from the perspective of maximizing public welfare) policy decisions?

3a) In two pages, using real or hypothetical examples, describe some of the dangers associated with a public institution leaving wide discretion for public employees to exercise their own judgment in the performance of their duties? 3b) In two pages, using real or hypothetical examples, describe some of the inefficiencies or unintended consequences that can result if the room for discretion for public servants is too narrow.

4a) What is a logic model and why are logic models important for policy evaluation and policy success? 4b) Explain in one page what confounding variables are and, using real-world examples why confounding variables can make it difficult to measure policy success. 4c) For-profit enterprises usually aim to maximize profits, whereas government policies aim to achieve a much wider range of objectives. What unique evaluation challenges does this difference between the two types of organizations present for public sector managers? 4d) What are unintended consequences and how should the possibility of unintended consequences from government actions inform the policy evaluation process?

5a) What is meant by “instrument choice” and why is this an important component of the policy process? 5b) What are some of the institutional, cognitive and political factors that can sometimes introduce bias towards short-sighted decision making in government? 5c) What is a static response to a policy problem and when might a static response be the appropriate choice for policymakers? 5d) In a one page, discuss the role of two different actors or institutions in shaping the design of public policies.

6a) In the mid-1990s, it became commonplace to hear that the policymaking function had expanded beyond the traditional institutions of government but was now set in a broader institutional context of “governance.” In one page, explain the importance of this shift in language. In one page, describe (with examples) what is meant by the term “new public management” and identify at least one major critique of the new public management approach.

7a) Why is it necessary for public sector leaders to think strategically and what are the advantages to a strategic approach to public policy and management? 7b) What are some specific actions that can be identified as components of a strategic approach to public sector management? 7c) What is meant by organizational goals and organizational mission? 7d) Provide an example of an area of public policy and management where structuring networks and partnerships with entities outside of government would be a valuable strategic management approach.

8a) What is groupthink and why is this an important concept for students of public administration and organizational behaviour more generally to understand? 8b) What is meant by the term organizational culture and how might it affect institutional performance?

9a) Internal conflict is not always harmful for organizations. In one page, describe how certain types of conflict can be helpful for an organization in achieving its objectives with (real or hypothetical) examples. 9b) What is inclusive management and how can inclusive management techniques help in the management of conflicts arising from cultural, intellectual and personality differences within diverse groups?

10a) Identify and describe three potential sources of motivation that can help drive employees to achieve tasks efficiently and effectively. 10b) In 2 pages discuss some of the risks and advantages associated with competition within teams (between team members) in high-functioning organizations. 

11a) Describe supranational governance institutions and provide two examples. 11b) The European Union has been identified by some experts as representing a novel type of multi-level governance. Discuss these claims in a 2 page paper. 11c) In 2 pages discuss the role of the municipality in multi-level governance arrangements making reference to the relationships between large municipal governments and the state or province in which they are located as well as the federal government.

12a) In recent decades, the term "governance" has become increasingly popular in academic literature surrounding public management. Why is this shift important, and what does the move towards a "public governance" approach to public administration mean for the delivery of policy and public services? 12b) Describe in 2 pages, with examples, what policy networks are, how they work, and why cooperation with partners outside of government have become increasingly important components of public sector management?

Page created by: Ian Clark, last updated 7 June 2015.


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