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PPM-111M: Advanced Policy and Management Analysis

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Normed Course Outlines

PPM-111M: Advanced Policy and Management Analysis

Description: This normed course outline builds on the material covered in PPM-101: Policy Analysis and Management, and covers 6 additional topics dealing with concepts and analytic techniques fundamental to managing and leading organizations, focusing on policy implementation.

Learning OutcomesOn successful completion of this course students will have the skills and knowledge to utilize the concepts enumerated below and be able to understand and describe:

  • The role of implementation in the policy cycle, and why implementation matters for policy success.
  • The uses of performance information as a tool to measure organizational performance and inform policy evolution.
  • How the environments in which they operate influence the ability of leaders to drive change in the public sector, and will understand some of the most important tools, skills and strategies that public sector managers have at their disposal in their efforts to execute their chosen strategies.
  • The possible benefits and risks to governments that are created by partnering with private sector entities to deliver policy and achieve public goals including the implications for policy effectiveness, democratic accountability, and public finances and will be able to apply these general lessons to specific cases.
  • The possible advantages as well as the risks associated with a government's decision to deliver policy through a delivery network, and recognize the agents and institutions outside of government who may be able to assist in policy delivery and the creation of public value.
  • Recent trends surrounding performance measurement in public sector organizations and be able to clearly explain the evolution of public sector administrative reforms in recent decades, including the benefits and risks associated with an increased emphasis on performance measurement.

Concepts to be Learned: Bottom-Up Theory of Implementation; Implementation; Forward Mapping (in implementation analysis); Implementation Lenses; Implementation Space; Top-Down Theory of Implementation; Performance (in public management); Performance Expectations (in public management); Performance Monitoring; Productivity in the Public Sector; Results Based Management; Results-Based Reporting; Performance Reporting; Performance Story; Benchmark; Expected Result; Intermediate Outcome; Lessons Learned (in evaluation); Neutrality (in evaluation); Objectivity (in evaluation); Outcome; Outputs; Performance Audit; Performance Criteria; Performance Indicator; Performance Measure; Performance Measurement; Performance Measurement Strategy; Span of Control; Collective Leadership; Leader; Leadership; Leadership Development; Alternative Service Delivery; Deregulation; Privatization; Voucher. Innovation Networks; Policy Network; Self-regulation; Network Governance; Networks; Management Improvement; Capacity; Capacity Building; Capacity Development; Managing-for-Results.

Course Syllabi Sources for this Normed Course Outline: Carleton University PADM 5116: Policy Analysis and Contemporary Governance; Toronto PPG1007H Putting Policy Into Action: Strategic Implementation of Public Objectives; Harvard MLD-110A Strategic Management for Public Purposes; Harvard MLD-110B Strategic Management; Carleton PADM 5117 Public Sector Management and the Canadian Political System; New York GP 1020 Managing Public Service Organizations; Rutgers 26:834:215 Introduction to Public Administration;

Normed Topics in this Normed Course Outline

Like other normed topics on the Atlas, each of these has a topic description, links to core concepts relevant to the topic, learning outcomes, a reading list drawn from available course syllabi, and a series of assessment questions.

Recommended Readings:

Week 1: Implementation and Policy

Osborne, D. and T. Gaebler, ‘Catalytic Government: Steering Rather than Rowing’, in  Reinventing Government (New York: Penguin, 1993). Chapter 1, 25-48

Sherri Torjman, "What is Policy?", Caledon Institute, 2005. At (accessed 21 February 2013) and dowloaded pdf.

Salamon, Lester M., ed. The Tools of Government: A Guide to the New Governance. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). Chapter 1, 1-18.

Dean, Tony, "Is Public Service Delivery Obsolete?", Literary Review of Canada, September 2011. At (accessed 21 February 2013). 

Bardach, Eugene. A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis. (Washington: CQ Press, 2009). Part 1. ‘The Eightfold Path, Step One: Define the Problem’, 1-10 and Appendix B, ‘Things Governments Do’, 127-135.

Tiernan, Anne, ‘Building Capacity for Policy Implementation’, in Improving Implementation: Organizational Change and Project Management, edited by John Wanna, 2007, pp. 113-118. (accessed 21 February 2013) and downloaded pdf.

Graham, Andrew, "Pressman/Wildavsky and Bardach: Implementation in the public sector, past, present and future", Canadian Public Administration, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2005. pp. 268-273. Book Review. 

Winter, Soren, "Implementation", in Guy Peters and Jon Pierre, eds. Handbook of Public Policy. (Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 2006). 151-164. Literature survey

Leslie A. Pal, Beyond Policy Analysis 4th ed. (Toronto: Nelson Education, 2010), chap. 5.

Barry Stemshorn and Robert Slater, “Potential for a Regulatory Breakthrough? Regulatory Governance and Human Resources Initiatives,” in Allan Maslove ed. How Ottawa Spends 2008-2009: A More Orderly Federalism? (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008), 59-81.

Sandford Borins, “Digital State 2.0,” in Policy G. Toner, L.A. Pal, and M.J. Prince (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010), 177-207

Week 2: Performance Information as a Management Tool

Miekatrien Sterck and Bram Scheers, “Trends in Performance Budgeting in Seven OECD Countries,” Public Performance & Management Review, 30 (Sept 2006), 1, 47-72.

Miekatrien Sterck, “The impact of performance budgeting on the role of the legislature: a four-country study,” International Review of Administrative Sciences, 73 (2007), 189-203.

Leone and Ohemeng, Chapter 6: “Do Performance Management Systems Lead to Better Accountability and Governance?"

Behn, R. D. (2003). Why Measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different Measures. Public Administration Review, 63, pp. 586-606.

Sawhill, J. C., & Williamson, D. (2001). Mission Impossible? Measuring Success in Nonprofit Organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 11, pp. 371-386.

W.K. Kellog Foundation (2004). W.K. Kellog Foundation Logic Model Development Guide. Chapter 1, pp. 1-14.

Lipsky, M. (2010). Goals and Performance Measures. In Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services, pp. 1-43. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Lampkin, L. M., & Hatry, H. P. (2003). Key Steps in Outcome Management. In Series on Outcome Management for Nonprofit Organizations, pp. 1-43. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Week 3: The Role of Leadership in Strategy and Implementation

Zimmerman and Lerner, Decisions, Decisions, Government Executive Magazine, 29 September, 2010.

Bazerman and Moore, Chapter 5, Motivational and Affective Influences on Decision Making, in Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, Seventh Edition, Wiley, 2009, pp 84-100.

Week 4: Implementing Through Markets

Blockliger, H. (2008). "Market mechanisms in public service provision". OECD Economics Department Working Paper,47.

Donahue, J. D., & Zeckhauser, R. J. (2006). Pp. 496-522. In M. Moran, M. Rein & R. E. Goodwin (Eds.), The oxford handbook of public policy (pp. 496-522). New York: Oxford University Press.

Eggers, W., & Dovey, T. (2006). “Closing the infrastructure gap." In W. Eggers, & R. Campbell (Eds.), States of transition: Tackling Government’s toughest policy and management challenges (pp. 245-75) Deloitte.

Government of Ontario. (2004). Building a Better Tomorrow: An infrastructure planning, financing and procurement framework for ontario’s public sector. http://www/

Government of Ontario. Renew Ontario: Progress Report.

Kamarck, E. (2002). Ch. 10 "The End of Government as We Know It." In J. Donahue, & J. Nye (Eds.), Market-based governance (pp. 227-59). Washington, DC.: Brookings Institution.

Kettl, D. F. (2001). Ch. 16 "Managing Indirect Government." In L. M. Salamon (Ed.), The Tools of Government (pp. 490-508).

OECD Directorate for Education. (2005). Chapter 5, "The Use of Market-Type Mechanisms to Provide Government Services." In Modernizing Government: The Way Forward

Reason Foundation. (2006). Transforming Government Through Privatization.

Week 5: Implementing with Partners

Michael Barber. Instruction to Deliver: Fighting to Transform Britain’s Public Services. (Cromwell Press, 2007) 43-48, 75-87 and 401-406.

Bradford, Neil. Canadian Social Policy in the 2000s: Bringing Place In. CPRN Research Report, November 2008.

‘Delivery Chain’, Cabinet Office Delivery Toolkit, OPS internal document, May 2011.

Donald Kettl, "Managing Indirect Government," in Lester Salamon, ed. The Tools of Government, Ibid. Chapter 16, 490-508.

Stephen Goldsmith and William D. Eggers. Governing by Network. (Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2004). Chap. 3, ‘Challenges of the Network Model’, 39-52.

Week 6: Organizational Performance and Management Reform

David Johnson (2006), Thinking Government: Public Sector Management in Canada, University of Toronto Press, chapter 8.

David Zussman (2010) “The Precarious State of the Federal Public Service: Prospects for Renewal”, in G. Bruce Doern and Christopher Stoney, eds., How Ottawa Spends 2010-2011: Recession, Realignment and the New Deficit Era, Montreal and Kingston, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 219-242.

Marilee S. Grindle (2004) “Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform in Developing Countries”, Governance, 17:4, 525–548.

Sample Assessment Questions:

1a) What is policy implementation? 1b) Describe, using at least one example, how ineffective implementation can interfere with the achievement of a policy objective. 1c) The implementation landscape has shifted in recent years. For example, governments increasingly rely on partnerships with non-state actors to deliver programs. Describe some of the possible advantages and drawbacks of the changes in the implementation landscape that have occurred in recent decades. 1d) Describe the “bottom-up” approach to implementation and how it differs from the “top-down” approach to implementation.

2a) How does performance management differ from program evaluation? 2b) Explain what performance information is and its role in the policy and implementation process. 2c) What are some possible unintended consequences of regularly using performance information as a tool to allocate organizational resources?

3a) What are the characteristics of a useful mission statement? 3b) Identify a mission statement for any governmental or not-for-profit institution of your choice that you believe is useful and effective, and explain why you think it is a strong mission statement. 3c) Why is performance information an important management tool and what are some of the challenges of obtaining it? 3c) How can internal organizational environmental factors and external environmental factors constrain the actions of public sector managers in their efforts to drive change? Describe, with (real or hypothetical) examples one type of environmental factor that can interfere with a public sector leader's efforts to successfully lead change in a short (1-3 page) paper.

4a) In two pages, describe two examples of market-based implementation strategies that were at least partially successful in achieving the efficiency gains and service improvements that market mechanisms are supposed to enhance. 4b) In two pages, describe the nature of the risks associated with loss of direct government control over program delivery using real or hypothetical examples.

5a) What is a policy network why are they thought to be increasingly important in the delivery of public services? 5b) What are some of the challenges associated with policy delivery through networks that include agents and institutions outside of government? 5c) In two pages, describe one example of a government successfully delivering policy through a delivery network that includes actors outside of government.

6a) What does the term "managing-for-results" mean in the context of public sector organizations? 6b) Identify one challenge related to performance measurement that is faced to a greater extent by public sector managers than their private sector counterparts. 6c) In two pages, describe one example of a government implementing a management reform initiative, and include reference to the alleged benefits and the criticisms of the reform both during and after implementation.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last updated 15 June 2015.


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School of Public Policy and Governance