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PPGPortal > Home > Concept Dictionary > S > Second Generation Canadian
Second Generation Canadian

Second generation Canadians are defined as persons who are born in Canada with either one or two parent(s) born outside of Canada.

(Statistics Canada)


The study of socio-economic outcomes of second generation Canadians is gaining momentum, especially with regard to educational and labour market outcomes. However, few studies are published in this area due to a lack of comprehensive and recent data.

Boyd’s (2002) research indicates second generation Canadians fair better than native-born Canadians in educational attainment. Corak (2008) supports Boyd’s findings and also makes similar assertions in the area of the labour market, stating that second generation Canadians are more likely to be in higher income brackets than the native-born. However, these findings are not without its critics who offer an opposing point of view.


Boyd, Monica. 2002. "Educational attainment of immigrant offspring: success or segmented assimilation." The International Migration Review 36: 1037-1060.

Corak, Miles. 2008. “Immigration in the Long Run: The Education and Earnings Mobility of the Second Generation Canadians,” Institute for Research on Public Policy Choices, 14(13).


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