Nine-one-one Federalism (in Canada)
A term that describe a triangular relationship in which Ottawa reach a different understanding with Quebec from other provinces and territories regarding matters at issue.
(Gibbins, cited in Baier et al, 2005, p. 173)
Writing about developments in asymmetrical federalism in Canada, Gibbins pointed to the triangular relationship between Ottawa, Quebec, and the other provinces and territories, especially since the Social Union Framework Agreement (SUFA) of 1992, and coined the term “9-1-l federalism”, which refers to the following: Ottawa and the other provinces, minus Quebec, reach agreement on the matters at issue; then Ottawa reaches a separate agreement or understanding with Quebec as to what aspects of this federal-provincial agreement would be harmonized or be applicable to that province. A key feature is that for there is no obligation imposed on Quebec to participate or financial penalties for deviating from its standards.