The execution of policy.
(Pal, Ch. 5).
It is broadly agreed that implementation makes a distinct contribution to the success or failure of a policy. The following notes highlight some of the most important points that have been made about implementation by leading experts on the subject:
Implementation is an execution process, an elaboration, a realization of schemes and conceptions, the building of links in often long chains of decision and agreement. (Pal, 199)
Implementation refers to the organizational structure and processes to execute policy instruments, to achieve a goal. (Pal,138)
The ambiguity of implementation reflects the complex symbiosis between theory and practice: policy is initially nothing more than ideas or conceptualizations, while implementation is the specific means of execution and elaboration in practice. (Pal, 200)
Pal, Leslie A. Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson College Indigenous, 2005.